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Three-year follow-up of a mass shooting episode

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dc.contributor.author North, Carol S.
dc.contributor.author McCutcheon, Vivia
dc.contributor.author Spitznagel, Edward L.
dc.contributor.author Smith, Elizabeth M.
dc.date.accessioned 2021-06-11T16:23:38Z
dc.date.available 2021-06-11T16:23:38Z
dc.date.issued 2002
dc.identifier.citation North, C.S., McCutcheon, V., Spitznagel, E. L., & Smith, E.M., (2002). Three-year follow-up of a mass shooting episode. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 79(3), 383-391. en_US
dc.identifier.uri https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3456787/pdf/11524_2006_Article_137.pdf
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11990/2221
dc.description.abstract This report describes a 3-year follow-up study of survivors of a mass shooting incident. Acute-phase and 1-year follow-up data from this incident have been previously reported. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule/Disaster Supplement was used to assess 116 survivors at 1–2 months and again 1 and 3 years later, with an 85% reinterview rate. Examining the course of postdisaster posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression in individuals allowed detailed consideration of remissions and delayed detection of disorders not possible from data presenting overall rates across different time frames. Only about one half of the PTSD cases identified at any time over 3 years were in remission at the 3-year follow-up. Those who did not recover from PTSD diverged from those who recovered at 3 years by reporting increased numbers of symptoms over time, especially avoidance and numbing symptoms. Although women and people with preexisting disorders were at greater risk for the development of PTSD, these variables did not predict chronicity. Chronicity of PTSD was predicted by functional impairment and seeking mental health treatment at baseline. Chronicity of major depression was predicted by report of family history of depression and treatment for paternal alcohol problems. No delayed cases of PTSD were identified. Studies are needed to compare these characteristics of the course of PTSD with other populations, using consistent methodology to allow valid comparison. [Author Abstract] en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher New York Academy of Medicine en_US
dc.subject Longitudinal Study en_US
dc.subject Survivor en_US
dc.subject Mental Health en_US
dc.subject Adult en_US
dc.subject Assessment en_US
dc.subject Gaps in Research en_US
dc.subject Prevalence en_US
dc.subject Mass Violence en_US
dc.subject Public Shootings en_US
dc.subject Posttraumatic Stress en_US
dc.subject Post-Traumatic Stress en_US
dc.subject PTSD en_US
dc.subject Depression en_US
dc.subject Gun Violence en_US
dc.subject Firearm Violence en_US
dc.title Three-year follow-up of a mass shooting episode en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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