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Trauma and PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

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dc.contributor.author Kessler, Ronald
dc.contributor.author Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio
dc.contributor.author Alonso, Jordi
dc.contributor.author Benjet, Corina
dc.contributor.author Bromet, Evelyn
dc.contributor.author Cardoso, Graca
dc.contributor.author Degenhardt, Louisa
dc.contributor.author de Girolamo, Giovanni
dc.contributor.author Dinolova, Rumyana
dc.contributor.author Ferry, Finola
dc.contributor.author Florescu, Silvia
dc.contributor.author Gureje, Oye
dc.contributor.author Haro, Josep
dc.contributor.author Huang, Yueqin
dc.contributor.author Karam, Elie
dc.contributor.author Kawakami, Norito
dc.contributor.author Lee, Sing
dc.contributor.author Lepine, Jean-Pierre
dc.contributor.author Levinson, Daphna
dc.contributor.author Navarro-Mateu, Fernando
dc.contributor.author Pennell, Beth-Ellen
dc.contributor.author Piazza, Marina
dc.contributor.author Posada-Villa, Jose
dc.contributor.author Scott, Kate
dc.contributor.author Stein, Dan
dc.contributor.author Have, Margreet
dc.contributor.author Torres, Yolanda
dc.contributor.author Viana, Maria
dc.contributor.author Petukhova, Maria
dc.contributor.author Sampson, Nancy
dc.contributor.author Zaslavsky, Alan
dc.contributor.author Koenen, Karestan
dc.date.accessioned 2019-01-30T22:00:22Z
dc.date.available 2019-01-30T22:00:22Z
dc.date.issued 2017
dc.identifier.citation Kessler, Ronald; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Cardoso, Graça; Degenhardt, Louisa; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Dinolova, Rumyana; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Scott, Kate; Stein, Dan; Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Viana, Maria; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Nancy; Zaslavsky, Alan; Koenen, Karestan. (2017). Trauma and PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. European Journal of Psychotraumatology 8. en_US
dc.identifier.uri https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/20008198.2017.1353383
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11990/1138
dc.description.abstract "Background: Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) onset-persistence is thought to vary significantly by trauma type, most epidemiological surveys are incapable of assessing this because they evaluate lifetime PTSD only for traumas nominated by respondents as their ‘worst.’ Objective: To review research on associations of trauma type with PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of epidemiological surveys that obtained representative data on trauma-specific PTSD. Method: WMH Surveys in 24 countries (n = 68,894) assessed 29 lifetime traumas and evaluated PTSD twice for each respondent: once for the ‘worst’ lifetime trauma and separately for a randomly-selected trauma with weighting to adjust for individual differences in trauma exposures. PTSD onset-persistence was evaluated with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results: In total, 70.4% of respondents experienced lifetime traumas, with exposure averaging 3.2 traumas per capita. Substantial between-trauma differences were found in PTSD onset but less in persistence. Traumas involving interpersonal violence had highest risk. Burden of PTSD, determined by multiplying trauma prevalence by trauma-specific PTSD risk and persistence, was 77.7 person-years/100 respondents. The trauma types with highest proportions of this burden were rape (13.1%), other sexual assault (15.1%), being stalked (9.8%), and unexpected death of a loved one (11.6%). The first three of these four represent relatively uncommon traumas with high PTSD risk and the last a very common trauma with low PTSD risk. The broad category of intimate partner sexual violence accounted for nearly 42.7% of all person-years with PTSD. Prior trauma history predicted both future trauma exposure and future PTSD risk. Conclusions: Trauma exposure is common throughout the world, unequally distributed, and differential across trauma types with respect to PTSD risk. Although a substantial minority of PTSD cases remits within months after onset, mean symptom duration is considerably longer than previously recognized." (Author Abstract) en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher European Journal of Psychotraumatology en_US
dc.subject Survey Results en_US
dc.subject Trauma en_US
dc.subject Long Term Effects en_US
dc.subject Psychological Consequences en_US
dc.subject PTSD en_US
dc.subject Post-traumatic en_US
dc.subject Risk Factors en_US
dc.subject Predictive Factors en_US
dc.subject Witness to Violence en_US
dc.subject Exposure to Violence en_US
dc.subject Physical Assault en_US
dc.subject Theft en_US
dc.subject Sexual Assault en_US
dc.subject Rape en_US
dc.subject Intimate Partner Violence en_US
dc.subject Child Abuse en_US
dc.subject Stalking en_US
dc.subject Traffic Fatality en_US
dc.subject Children Exposed to Violence en_US
dc.subject Resilience en_US
dc.title Trauma and PTSD in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys en_US
dc.type Article en_US


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